Developmental Dog Training – We Enrich Dogs

Developmental dog training looks at the root issues of why a dog is behaving and how you and your family can help your fur friend.
We base our work on the developmental level, temperament, genetics and life experiences of you and your dog. We respect trauma and search to find triggers.

Positive training produces dogs who are confidant, motivated, and attentive.

PawZup offers natural classroom settings where your dog learns manners and skills in a real world environment. We also offer private in-home or in the community classes to reach dogs with special requirements. In addition we will design classes for a group of friends or for a family working together to help integrate new members.

Our philosophy is to make training “easy and livable” for families and their dogs.

We offer open classes for dogs of all ages and skill levels. Our youngest graduate handler achieved with her puppy the AKC Star Puppy Medal when she was four year’s wise. We work with all people and special needs are welcome for both canines and human kinds.

Puppies with vaccinations can start as early as eight weeks in puppy play and socialization classes.

Our training is positive, upbeat, fun and gentle.

Our classes are open, which means we meet your family and your dogs at your basic needs level. Join a four week class anytime and we meet you where you are at.

  • If your dogs still needs to learn her name “What’s Up” we will begin there.
  • If your dog has trouble with “Chews Wisely” we have some ideas.
  • If your dog looks the other way on “Let’s Go” we have some strategies.
  • If your dog needs to learn “Sit Happens” everywhere, we help you bridge those connections.
  • If your dog needs “Stay Power” and “Leave It Forever” that’s the skills we’ll be working on for your team.
  • We have fun. We laugh. We learn.
  • We use the biggest toy we have – YOU and we use a dog’s favorite activity PLAY. It is a win-win for your whole family.

We have a basic core curriculum we follow and we move each dog in developmental steps to higher levels without stress to handlers or their canines.

Developmental dog training considers the needs of our pet guardians – communication abilities, skills, mobility issues.

Developmental dog training use positive reinforcement tools that work best for your team – for some dogs that is clicker, for others it is marked with “Yes.” We reward with love, praise, treats, toys and most fun of all “more fun activities. We use treats for new learning or counter conditioning to change behaviors. We do fade treats as skills are learned and confidence is gained.

Developmental dog training training constantly incorporates the latest and most reliable scientific findings to further an evolutionary progress toward a more harmonious relationship between humans and the animals who live with them.

Contact Jodee Kulp at PawZup.net for more information

 

Service Dogs? Therapy Dogs? Emotional Support Animal?

 

Some clarification – and some videos you might enjoy

SERVICE DOGS, EMOTIONAL SUPPORT ANIMALS, THERAPY DOGS
All one species and all different jobs Dogs can do.

SERVICE DOGS

A Service Dog is a working dog regardless of the breed and size. These dogs are trained and certified to do at least three specific tasks a person cannot accomplish on their own. It is a serious job with a lot of responsibility for the family and the dog. Each service dog team or triad is as unique as the dog and people involved. Skills and task sets will vary, as will abilities and outcomes. There are many skills a dog can be trained to do. A service dog is allowed to go with the person to school, public transportation, church, etc. The work of a service dog is serious business and can actually mean life or death for the person the dog serves. Because of the investment of thousands of individuals with integrity in the past, we respect and value the reality of these highly important jobs. We endorse doing this job right and certified if you are going to jump into this opportunity for a person you love.

A service dog is still a dog and you cannot take the dog out of the dog. Dog behaviors are part of the package.

In the case of working with persons with FASD, it is recommended there be a team of three (triad) 

  1. Task specific trained dog with a temperament that can handle the persons being served
  2. Full-time neuro-typical responsible handler (parent, spouse, partner) where the dog can get training, direction, leadership, protection
  3. Person (child, adult) who lives with the challenges of FASD who dog provides friendship, love and supports to

Service Dog Stories for person with FASD

Limey retired from being a service dog to our home. When he returned to our house (we were the initial trainers and breeders) he opened sliding doors, turned door knobs, pulled latches and hit the unlocks. We had to get a push then pull special latch to keep him in the house. Today I wish I had taken videos. He could open all the toilet lids for the other dogs to drink. Limey left being a service dog for my friend with FASD and became a service dog for our whole dog pack. It was crazy. Best to be prepared if you take on a service working dog for re-home – Limey did not retire, he simply changed jobs.

On the other hand, his calming and soothing skills proved valuable when I broke my back. He knew intuitively to lay still next to me barely breathing. His gentle rhythm moved and soothed my back against soft warm poodle fur all night. I know Dr Limey was part of my successful healing.

He also decided for the next five years to try to usurp the mild giant that would never start a fight, but was a finisher to the end. He never learned not to torment or not poke that big bear. Wise, brilliant and trained dogs are very special and they come with surprises.

  • Chancer – First Service Dog for Child with FASD – trained by 4 Paws for Ability
  • Sasha – Service Dog for Savannah – trained privately
  • Feather – Service Dog for Katherine – trained privately
  • Toby – Service Dog for Jordan (teen)

What can a service dog do for a child with FASD?

(Note: Dogs are not babysitters – even a standard poodle which I breed and train for high intelligence reaches only a 3 year old level, yes they can learn colors and read pictures, but they are still dogs)

Tasks

  • Track if a child elopes (task)
  • Tether in public and stop if child bolts (task)
  • Seek caregiver if alarm sounds – window/bedroom/doors (task)
  • Find a caregiver when a certain behavior is displayed (task)
  • Provide support during waking and night terrors – our dog alerted with a buuffff and it reset our daughter’s system so she could awake. As an adult she explained it was like she was locked in a white wall and had to scream her way out, but the dog’s low bark could get through. (task)
  • Provide navigation and companionship to bathroom at night (task)
  • Behavior interrupt – dog is trained to know certain behaviors and interrupts them with play or kissing. Possible behaviors – head banging, picking, nail chewing, flapping (task)
  • Sense meltdown coming and redirect with play or calm petting (task)
  • Retrieve things (task)
  • Sense stress/anxiety and redirect (task)
  • Alert for seizures or blood sugar (task)
  • Pick up dropped items (task)
  • Help in cleaning room (task)
  • Steady for balance (task)

NOT TASKS
(These often fall in realm of job of EMOTIONAL SUPPORT ANIMAL)

  • Companion and friend (not a task)
  • Calm in anxious situation (not a task)
  • Social lubrication/bridge – other kids like the dog and accept the child as a friend (not a task)
  • Increase confidence (not a task)
  • Provide focus in unstructured environment (not a task)

What can a service dog can do for adult with FASD?

TASKS

  • Alert for seizures or blood sugar (task)
  • Interrupt behaviors like head banging, picking, nail chewing, flapping (task)
  • Provide safety in the community blocking, stopping (task)
  • Picking up dropped items if lacking balance or bracing when standing (task)
  • Guide home on command (task)
  • Enter home and check for safety (task)
  • Enter and sit in bathroom stall for safety (task)
  • Sense stress/anxiety and redirect (task)
  • Bark for help (task)
  • Retrieve a cell phone in a crisis (task)
  • Bring medication/juice box if needed (task)
  • Wake person in a loving way, kissing, pulling off covers, nuzzling (task)
  • Provide navigation and companionship to bathroom at night (task)
  • Open/shut doors, latches, drawers (task)
  • Turn on lights to enter house (task)
  • Help develop planning skills (task)
  • Stop at street curb and won’t allow person to go across street without proper signal (task)

NOT TASKS

  • Provide social lubrication (not a task)
  • Provide companionship (not a task)
  • Exercise and lower stress levels (not a task)
  • Being more in tune to keep dog safe in public (not a task)
  • Looking out for the needs of another beyond yourself (not a task)
  • Provide mitigation for excessive noise – hand drying machines, flushing toilets (not a task)
  • Provide navigation through crowds of people (not a task)
  • Increase confidence (not a task)
  • Provide focus in unstructured environment (not a task)
  • Backs away from aggression, goes to safe place (not a task)

If you are thinking of using a psychiatric service dog (PSD) the following states have special requirements. If you are in one of these states check out your details. You may also want to check what is happening with autism service dogs. Hope this information is helpful – not everything you read on the web is true. Check out ALL organizations, breeders and trainers carefully.

Potential task list for PDA http://www.iaadp.org/psd_tasks.html

States with special requirements for PDA

  • Arkansas (Public Health Code § 20-14-304(a))
  • Delaware (Commerce & Trade Code § 6-45-4502)
  • Florida (Social Welfare § 413.08)
  • Georgia (Handicapped Persons Code § 30-4-2)
  • Idaho (Public Welfare Code § 56-701A(7))
  • Illinois (Civil Liabilities Code § 740.13/5)
  • Louisiana (Public Welfare Code § 46.1952)
  • Massachusetts (Criminal Code 1.272.98A)
  • Michigan (Penal Code Penal Code § 750.502c)
  • Mississippi (Criminal Code § 97-41-21(5)(g), referring to a service dog for a “physically limited” individual)
  • Missouri (Public Health & Welfare Code § 12.209.150.4)
  • Oklahoma (Blind Persons Code § 7.19.1.D.2)
  • Oregon (Education & Culture Code § 346.680)
  • South Dakota (Personal Rights Code § 20-13-23.2)
  • Tennessee (Professions, Businesses and Trades Code § 62-7-112(a))

Links to learn more:

EMOTIONAL SUPPORT ANIMAL

An emotional support animal (cat, dog, rabbit, bird) is just that – an animal used for emotional support to help a person deal with emotions. An emotional support animal has permission to live in housing areas not otherwise allowing pets. Some of the dangerous breeds may be disqualified and take legal action to gain permission. An emotional support animal is prescribed by a doctor.

THERAPY DOG

A therapy dog begins life as a puppy going to obedience – my recommendation is that before taking the therapy test they have passed the AKC Star Puppy and been titled in AKC Canine Good Citizen, AKC Advanced Community Canine Good Citizen and AKC Urban Canine Good Citizen. These three titles and tests provide the basis to begin taking the Therapy Dog Classes and moving into higher levels of job performance.

Please comment and ask me questions. This is important stuff. It is important for ALL the quality service dogs and people who have gone before us to keep the sanctity of these roles wholesome and safe.

I volunteer in our community and made some short TV shows to help families – one on Gentle, Sharing and 3 Holiday Safety and Kids videos with our kind of kids helping me. All my shows are for our families – enjoy

https://www.youtube.com/user/Knarlwoods

My hope is to develop a Family Centered Dog Training Program to help children/teens/adults build executive function skills in the Twin Cities. Let me know if you are interested.

Here is some more information A Complete Guide to Service and Emotional Support Dogs

Dis’ Ability Etiquette

If you are not used to relationships with persons who face significant life challenges and also may have a service dog, here are some tips of etiquette:

Assistance:

  1. Offer assistance if you feel like it, but WAIT until your offer is accepted BEFORE you help.
  2. Listen carefully to any instructions the person gives you and follow through

Giving Directions to Person in a Wheelchair:

  1. Consider distance and weather conditions
  2. Consider physical obstacles such as curbs, stairs and steep hills

Giving Directions to Person with Vision Impairment:

  1. Be specific – “go two yards and turn right” or “left one hundred feet, stop at curb.”

Give Grace in Time:

  1. Let the person set the pace for walking and talking
  2. Let the person set the pace to get things done or said.

Event Planning:

  1. Consider disability needs ahead of time – do you need extra chairs, where.
  2. If there will be barriers let the person with a disability know and discuss with them ideas to solve it

Dog working place etiquette:

  1. No messing on floor, if a mistake occurs owner must clean it up
  2. Dogs should not disrupt business or distract clients
  3. Dogs confined to work area of employee
  4. No excessive barking

Spirit of Makone Soars over the Rainbow Bridge – Dog Death

Knarlwoods Makone
Knarlwoods Makone

Spirit and life memories of Mak still soar in my heart.

My grieving is not over. His memories continue because his earthly spirit was a large presence in our home. I still watch so I do not bump him in the middle of the night if I get up and I watch to see if he is running towards me so I won’t be knocked over in his joy. And tears flow when I am aware in the spirit sense he has moved away from me. I was startled at how quickly his life journey ended and his spirit passage to the rainbow bridge occurrred. Whatever his last magnificent jump was, it killed him—his stomach twisted (bloat or gastric torsion) and the presentation of his situation was not as we had seen before. Mak was my eleven-year-old wild boy, filled with humor and jokes and pranks upon his human family. He was a broad-chested strong male standard poodle who could run like the wind and jump over anything in his way.

The process of creating the “Healing Postcard” which can be done in any artistic media (paint, pencil, clay, beads, music, dance) brought closure and clarity. And even when the autopsy report came back confirming what we saw on the x-ray – I was okay.

 

Healing Post Card Back Side
Healing Postcard – Art Therapy

Photo 1 – HEALING POSTCARD

Healing postcard back asking for Angel’s kisses for a beloved fur-son.

Dealing With Grief and The Journey of the Rainbow Bridge

“Final Peace” is the bursting forth of the spirit into life
and the merging of life into the spirit returning to forever.

Thank you for this project as I stepped through grief with a Healing Postcard  – Arts Therapy – Arts Therapy For Self Healing (Part One)
a class available on Udemy.com 
by Libby Seery – Founder of Renaissance Life Therapies

 Artist’s Name: Jodee Kulp

Lecture Title: Healing Postcard (Lecture #35)

Title of My Work: “Final PEACE”

 

Photoshop Glass Block Photogragh
Choosing a photo of lights reflecting in a glass block and digital illustration.

Photo 2 – MATERIALS

I chose to use digital media and Adobe PhotoShop as I already had pictures I could blend into my vision. Two days ago, very unexpected our beloved Makone of Knarlwoods ran over the Rainbow bridge. He was a loving, active, and wild guy in nature and a loving and calm presence among the people he so loved. He was beloved.

Photoshop last layer
Photoshop last layer and final peace.

Photo 1 – DIGITAL PRODUCTION

Reality as I understood it had departed and faded. Less than 48 hours ago he was vibrant and running in ways I could only dream of moving. That reality has since faded and the final PEACE appears quickly to me – in a blink of an eye. I have lived enough life that to understand that PEACE you must rest in the process. And that process has a life of its own and there is no full hiding in the logic of the mind because of the breath of the creative breezes through like a cold north wind on a winter’s day.

 

Glass photograph
Original untouched photo

Photo 3

ORIGINAL GLASS PHOTO – CAR LIGHTS FROM STREET REFLECTING INTO GLASS BLOCK

I took this pictures years ago while putting my dog training supplies back into a dark storage room. The lights of the cars on the street glistened upon and into the blocks of glass like a holiday tree and I was captivated watching the light move in and away from the glass. The light was alive and it mesmerized me. It was a life-captured moment and I took a number of pictures to remember the dance.

Digital Fingerpainting
Digital fingerpainting

Photo 4

CREATING FUR FINGERPAINTING IN THE HIGHLIGHTS –

It was soothing to move my fingers in the manner I would have twirled his fur – he had the best fur. Knobby and course yet soft and twirling. He loved me running my fingers in raccoon touches along his neck, around his eyes, and down his massive chest. He loved warm and heavy panther and leopard on his strong muscled being. He nuzz-nuzzed to encourage me, do not stop, life is short, embrace it in its wholeness. Love life with abandon. Carpe Diem – Seize this day – this very day is yours to take – it is your gift of the present. There are balls and cars and naps to take—Let’s go—LET’S go—LET’S GO-NOW!

 

Digital finger painting spirit and fur
Digital fingerpainting spirit and fur

Photo 5

FINGER PAINTED HIS MANE AND MORE FUR –

His lovely standard poodle mane needed the kind of expression his spirit held. Makone ran like the wind like his father, but he harnessed in some control. He was a prankster and jokester and laughed with dog jokes I had never encountered. He made me look into his world, with his eyes, to understand the depth of his humor – his dog life – his spirit.

Digital fire
Digital fire

Photo 6

ADDED SPIRIT FIRE –

The spirit fire light welcomed him to his next beginning as quickly as to how on earth he welcomed himself into my prayer life. From a slumbering dog sleep he’d awaken and come to be connected as I connected to something he understood better than I.

 

Rainbow Gradient Overlay
Rainbow Gradient Overlay

Photo 7

ADDED THE PROMISED RAINBOW

And the blanket of the rainbow’s spirit separated the dark from the light.

 

Rainbow Gradient Overlay on Digital Fingerpainting
Rainbow Gradient Overlay on Digital Fingerpainting

Photo 8

MERGED RAINBOW INTO SPIRIT PAINTING

And he chose PEACE. His beating heart stopped. And with it, the precious lifeblood ceased dancing in his body, ceased running from head to toe and tail to head. There is power in that blood and then…. the beating stops…. the warmth….lets go. It LET’S GO like he loved so much.

Knarlwoods Makone - his cozy beginning
Knarlwoods Makone – his cozy beginning

Photo 9

PICTURE AS A 5 DAY OLD NEONATE

And I remembered holding him at hello. Before his eyes and ears had opened. Before his mama had licked him clean. Feeling the little beat of his heart – the little beat of his coming to earth spirit.

 

Neonate Knarlwoods Makone - his spirit beginning
Neonate Knarlwoods Makone – his spirit beginning

Photo 11

FLOATED NEONATE ON THE SPIRIT COLORS

And those memories floated one inside of another – the mighty tiny hunter carrying the pheasant wing, the jumper of agility over my summer potted plants, the dogwoods where only a proper dog would eliminate unless of course, it was… does a bear poop in the woods… dogs do. And they also pee the highest and the longest and on top of all the others who piddle first. He waited. The maleness of him in all of his strength and weight and muscles so toned. He watched. For hours sitting. Seeing how people and the neighborhood works, he knew the squirrel’s nest and the rabbit’s hovel and as long as they remained on the other side of his fence, they were patiently observed. He was the King—a lover of his people, never a starter, always a finisher.

 

Knarlwoods Makone - all grown up
Knarlwoods Makone – all grown up

Photo 12

PICTURE OF MAKONE –

Perhaps you see the strength of his character. Whenever I prayed he arrived to lie next to me and put his paw on my body. When life got too chaotic, he simply sat with a paw on my arm, a muzzle on my leg. If I had worked to many hours – he was ready for a game of ball. And that moment was the present – right now – right NOW – RIGHT NOW! To continue working – I needed a detour of laughter into his big space – he knew – renew your mind with play – pay attention and play with me.

 

Knarlwoods Makone - all grown up merging with neonate
Knarlwoods Makone – all grown up merging with neonate

Photo 13
MAKONE BLENDING WITH SPIRIT COLORS

Letting go.

 

From Beginning
From Beginning

Photo 14
MAK-BLENDS

And I think, how can humankind even begin to understand another beginning when it seems that the door has been closed on loving a life of another, of running and jumping and eating together? Of touching and hugging and nuzzling? Of laying together on a big pillow by warm fires as winter winds blow. Of splashing water and mud and all that life brings to each other’s lives. Of cleaning up the messes, and reordering the chaos and dancing in delight? How?

 

More blending
More blending

Photo 16 – (Blends)

CROPPED MAKONE

Thinking about when I held him at hello, wet and bloody at his birth and I was curious in this painting — what was this next place – what was this next step?

 

From Beginning - From Beginning
From Beginning – From Beginning

Photo 16 (Beginning)

ADDED BEGINNING

And I felt in my spirit-heart that life was never a real ending, it was a NEW BEGINNING, not just for him, but also for me. And when he had departed, he left behind his family of others and each of them had just as vibrant of life as he had. Each creature is given that regardless our circumstances or challenges or earth troubles. That each person and each creature is surrounded by life-blood energy that exists for a blink. It is our present gift to embrace that – to honor that – to build relationships. And I looked at my new unknown fur-creature who had entered our home in the past month to be loved and nurtured and I realized for her to grow – for her to gain confidence within the beauty of her timidness, the strength and loudness of his character had stepped back.

 

From Beginning - From Beginning - Full Circle
From Beginning – From Beginning – Full Circle

Photo 17

SOFTENED EDGES OF MAKONE TO BLEND WITH SPIRIT PAINTING AND ADDED FROM BEGINNING

It was from beginning … from beginning. And in this second beginning I did not have the key. One beginning to another beginning. This was not his ending. It was only his ending of memory-making with me. I could not hold his spirit it was time for him to go—his life was his alone. But I could hold on to his life gifts and the memories and I could keep them in my heart with all the other family and friends of fur and skin that had moved on. Life is a beginning of many hellos and it is a twilight of many good-see ya laters. And I believe that death has no hold on eternity and what is is and what will be will be and I felt a final PEACE.

POSTCARD FRONT

Spirit circle complete
Spirit circle complete

About Me:

I am a prayer painter normally in acrylic. The prayers I paint are healing prayers filled with love for those I pray for. Some have terminal illnesses, others have broken hearts. I keep paints and canvases ready and each painting speaks to those the gift is given. This is the first time I have created a prayer painting on the computer, It is the first time I have created a painting for myself. And keeping in my logic side it seemed more soothing for me to finger paint in pixels. It was interesting to me to watch the creation of the merging of the photos and colors, I do not think I could have gotten the glass effect with acrylics and I like it. I hope this also give peace and understanding to others in grief and healing.

As a dog trainer and researcher for persons with life challenges, canines are near and dear to my heart. The fur-creation canines are the bridges in my Expanding Mindz with Canines program. They are the connections for confidence and laughter and skill building. My big and lovely blue standard was running and jumping on Friday and was merged into the fullness of his spirit on Sunday. Bloat will do that the even the healthiest.

Prayer is a part of my waking day. Praise dancing is a part of my heart. Dance big boy dance—at the rainbow bridge—with your father, your mother, your sister and your brothers. Until we meet again — “Chuffa-Chuffa”

Where you can see more of my work:

Holiday Safety – Kids and Dogs – Part Three

Make Salmon Fudge and play
some games with Amani and Rhys

Join Rhys (age 4) as he learns about playing with dogs and Amani (age 7) in Part 3 as he takes his job seriously as “Sherlock”, to think like a dog during the holidays. “Hmmm I wonder what a dog thinks? Learn to make “Salmon Fudge.”

Child viewing friendly with games a child can play with his or her fur pal. Enjoy all 3 half hour programs.

Holiday Safety – Kids and Dogs – Part Two

Explore the Salvation Army with
Judy and Join Amani (age 7)

Explore the Salvation Army with Judy and Join Amani (age 7) in Part @ as he takes his job seriously as “Sherlock”, to think like a dog during the holidays. “Hmmm I wonder what a dog thinks?

Learn to make some “Dog Gone Good Cookies.” Child viewing friendly with games a child can play with his or her fur pal. Enjoy all 3 half hour programs.

Holiday Safety – Kids and Dogs – Part One

Let’s learn to make some Pupscicles and learn what your dog might think about the Christmas Holidays.

Join Amani (age 7) working as “Sherlock”, as he learns to think like a dog during the holidays. “Hmmm I wonder what a dog thinks? Child viewing friendly with games a child can play with his or her fur pal. Enjoy all 3 half hour programs.

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Injured Dog – Training Ideas For A Recovering Dog

Tricks that can be taught while the dog remains lying down:


Nose Knows “Touch”

  • “Touch”
  • Object to Nose
  • Touch hand
  • Touch stick
  • Push ball with nose
  • Touch ball

Eye Can Do It

  • Blink
  • Eyes
  • Look

Body Smarts

  • Relax
  • Possum
  • Play Dead
  • Settle

Smart Mouth

  • Kisses
  • Sneeze
  • Yawn
  • Smile
  • Speak
  • Lick Lips
  • Open Mouth on Cue
  • Spit it out
  • Give
  • Take

Heads Ahead

  • Sharing with another dog
  • Taking turns
  • Turn head
  • Shake Head
  • Rest Chin
  • Reverse
  • Count
  • Colors Blue, Yellow, Black, White
  • Nod
  • Nuzzle with head

Paws Pause

  • “Target” with Paw
  • Paw Lift
  • Hugs
  • Cross your paws
  • Right Paw
  • Left Paw
  • Paw on your hand
  • Paw on you knee
  • Salute
  • Paint

Resources Beyond PawZup

Favorite Trainers

The world is filled with excellent positive dog trainers who are willing to work together to help families and dogs. If you need information you won’t go wrong searching on these sites.

“TOP” paw-sitive trainers:

ORGANIZATIONS

Interested in learning more about Dog Training – check out some of these organizations.

Favorite organizations:

Interested in becoming a Dog Trainer?

Best Resources

Here are my favorites books for your personal dog library. I have linked most of the book titles directly to the authors – their hard work and wisdom deserves the reward.

Favorite”TOP” reading list:

Favorite “VIDEO” trainers:

  • Gabor Korom, Dogschool of Népsziget, HungaryMirror Method training incorporates positive reinforcement through the use of a clicker. The trainer teaches the dog by encouraging it to mimic his or her actions by three basic strategies.
    • – Building the relationship with the dog and establishing its ranking order in everyday life
    • – Teaching the dog by using only positive reinforcement and the clicker with absolutely no force or negativity involved
    • – Enforcing the dog’s required lifestyle by providing him with the opportunities to work down his instinct-energies
    • YouTube include: